Rethinking National Competitiveness in a Resource-Constrained World

Rethinking National Competitiveness in a Resource-Constrained World

The purpose of this figure is to stimulate the discussion for more comprehensive competitiveness measurements and indicators, leading to the rethinking of competitiveness in terms of how limits to material growth will shape each nation and world future. Although most national competitiveness analyses are based on the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) and the 12 pillars of economic competitiveness, there are other aspects that play crucial roles in determining economic growth and long-term prosperity. These aspects behave as constraints to economic growth and they are of demographic and ecological nature (i.e., demographic and ecological constraints). When population is growing, consumption, food production and industrial production are all growing too. This process depends upon natural resources since it needs sources that provide materials and energy. But the earth and its resources —both non-renewable and renewable— are all finite when these resources are over-extracted and its emissions exceed productive and absorptive capacities. Since competitiveness measures lack of account the constraints to productivity growth and national wealth in the long-term, the figure presented compares national competiveness results with other well-known measures and indicators such as biocapacity and ecological footprint. It also incorporates other well-known measures and indicators such as the World Bank’s country classification by income group and the UNDP Human Development Index. The figure permits to compare national competiveness results with the ecological footprint status by and between countries. It considers the fundamental link between economy, human population and environment.How to read this chart?This doughnut-shape diagram organizes data by country and by indicator. This diagram allows assessing countries as well as comparing a single indicator across them:

  • – National competitiveness assessment when looking by “portions”; and
  • – Cross country comparison when looking at a single “ring.”

Indicators methodological details are directly available at the data sources websites.For more information visit our website

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